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ʱ䣺2017-08-11 15:14:15

ʾԴȦںͼƬԴquantamagazine.org Pradeep Mutalik ˼漡У κ ׯάעֵ̽ġԱ𡱽ֳָϵԱ𣬲漰...

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ͼƬԴquantamagazine.org

Pradeep Mutalik

˼

У κ ׯά

עֵ̽ġԱ𡱽ֳָϵԱ𣬲漰֮κκ塣

Ϊʲôϴĸߵȼ׵ֻӵԱ

⣬־Quanta Magazineڽ7µġÿ⡱𰸡ӵԱıɫβܱԱһı磿˵ָͷĿij˻Ƕ٣ԷֳԷֳ˭ЩⶼѧƵͳѧ˼𡪡ϴ˵ԱԴڣԷֳҲȱݡȥЩɫָͷôİɣ

1

費ǰǷӵԱ֣һϲıɫǾͽް߱ɫChamaeleoamericanuspatrioticusɡİ߱ɫֱֳɫɫɫ 3 ɫÿһɫӦһԱ𡣲ֱɫɫıʱǵԱҲ֮ı䡣ȷͬɫԱ𣩵ıɫʱͨ˫˫ɵɫԱ𣩣ͼʾɫDZµɫֱһλԼɫͬС顣Чԣɫĸıһһźš˼ڲҪֱɫ൱ƵֻͬɫıɫҪǧϰٴαɫŻԸͶԷΪ½н䡣öΪѧǵĵǣΪһ⣺ûüֳأԱͱһˡ

ͬɫԱ𣩵ıɫʱǶɵɫԱ

ֱɫƵеıɫͬһɫԱ𣩣Ǿʹ²ˡԱͬĸ޷䷱ܵġԱһĹؼڣȺһʼڶٲͬɫĸ塣ݳʼIJͬһЩȺᱻһһЩԶᡣԤһȺɫԱ𣩵һôܣͨİ취أҿһ㡣

I 飺8 ֻɫ5 ֻɫ 14 ֻɫıɫ

II 飺9 ֻɫ10 ֻɫ 16 ֻɫıɫ

Լ III 飺7 ֻɫ6 ֻɫ 50 ֻɫɫ

ԺܽһʼҪжֲͬɫĸ壬ֹܷɫԱ𣩵һĹô

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ûȷһdzĹɣÿɫԱ𣩵ĸĿ 3õͬʱԱһ㲻ᷢѧǣɫԱ𣩵ĸĿڶ 3 ȡģʱõͬģһγһģϣ012עԣa b ȡģõģabȡһ£ǿ԰ΪżԣparityĸչżԽΪż࣬Ա£ҪɫֵΪࣺ 3 1P1 3 2P2ܱ 3 P3ȷĴģֻеɫȺﲻͬԱĸֱֵ P1P2 P3 ʱԱһܵõ⡣仰˵ﲻȺζͬһԱһ𿴿֤ɡ

DzܷԱһȺÿһԱĿֱ P1P2 P3ôһɫ任ʹԱĸĿ 1ԱĸĿ 2 ע⣺ڶ 3 ȡģУ+2 Чͬ -1ԣ۷ٴɫ仯ԱĸĿ𶼲ᷢı䣬Ҳ˵ÿԱֵȻֱ P1P2 P3ҪﵽԱһԱʧһǶӦĿ P3ڵǰȻDzܵġԣκηһǰ϶޷Աһ

Ϊ˽һ֤ϵıҪԣǻҪ˵ⲻȺ޷ⱻһˡ abc ֱɫԱab c Ӧĸֵ޷γ 012 ģϣôٵͬһࡪ˵a b 3 ȡģõģͬġʱa b пȣҲп 3 ıܱ֮֮ 3 Ҳǣb-a P3ڼ a Сڵ babôԱ a Ա b ɫһ a 0 a=bôԱһˣȺֻʣԱ c ıɫ a<bôʱԱıɫĿͷֱ A=0B=b-aC=c+2a

ǿһ顰b  c a  b a  b b  cʹ a Ŀ 2Ա a ıɫܷɫ b  c abc ֱɫĿֱ 2B-1 C-1һε ab ĿΪ 1 B-2 C+1ڶ a  b սͱ 0B-3C+3 УԱ a ıɫͺñеӣвʹ֡ΪСһֱѭȥĻԱ b ıɫĿܻ 0һᵽB P3ɣԱһĴҵɹˣ

֮ǰֵһɡI У85 14 P2 a=8b=5 c=14 5  a  b ǵõ a b c ֱֵΪ 0 3 24 Žһb  ca  ba  bֱɫĿa b cαɣ2 2 23 1 1 25 ͣ0 0 27Աͳһҵɡ

II У10 16 P1 9 P3 a=10b=16c=9 10  a  b ԱıɫĿֱΪ0 6 29ȻֵѭII Ⱥоֻʣ 35 Ա c ıɫԱٴεõͳһ

III ݵʵԴ죬ֱַӦ 7 6 50 ɫǣ7 P16 P350 P2޷Աһġ[?]

һ۵ȫʵѧѧ˼Χʵпܴڵ⣬̽ΪʲôԱֳּϵҲ޷ɹԱΪ˷serial multiplication㡱һڶʡ

2

ˣ 70 ڣȫվһţȻָͷˡһõ 25 ȻԵڶ˵ָٽָԴơĸѡӽij˻

A5 70 ڴη

B10 70 ڴη

C5 140 ڴη

Dĸ

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DzĿǸԽת䣡ÿ˶ʮָͷе˿ȱ˼еȱ˺ܶȷĴDյij˻ 0ֻҪһȫûָͷϾԴ˻ͻ 0

Ⱪ¶νġ˷㡱һij˻ΪгһֵͻΪСڼӷвı׶ˡԳϹϵأڽУĽ״ʵϾ˷ֵֺĹؼԲ졣һ 14 ȫŷ 30-60 %˿ڶһʵɡⷢУжٱĸ屻Ĩɱ 90 % 99 %ȫлԷֳÿ˶ӵвͬĻʹǶԴȾŲͬķӦе̱ˣеڲܻ֮е˿ֻܵ΢Ӱ졣ǶԷֳԣÿ嶼ֳһķӦзӹһҵԿ׵ĴȾҵֵ㣺ɱɣ

ǿԼ򵥵ؽĽ״ f ΪijֵһĿ f n ԺȺһһ˻ f ȡÿһľȷڴ£ȣﶼһܸߵ f ֵ߶ԣf ֵΪѶ½Σǣ f ֵпܻ 0 鷢ʱ飡һȫ

һѵӣǾкԷֳĶӵһֲ֣ϲī޵ıβ档ĽУԷֳŴγֻ֣ڽ꼻һ֡Էֳ࣬Էֳúܿ졣ִ涼˴άֻԵļɣƾǵȵķֳԼȾɫĿһܵ˵˷ܺߣ治ǡǵһ⽫Ҫһ㡣

3

棬һԷֳһԷֳǵѾȶˮƽӵеԴܳеٽֵÿһʶԴ 1 ȻӵнϸߵƽʣҸȶټһһƽ 1.1׼Ϊ 0.15 ʺͱ׼ֱ 1.2 0.3˴ǰѸʼ򻯳Ϊ㣩ƽˮƽöࡣǣеı仯ҲʱᷢʲôأһҪãʵһЩԽÿһΪ 10 %

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Ǻأ󲿷ֶ߻ôֻҪŪױ׼ֲ̬еãͺܼˡУÿһʶвͬ99.7 %ʷֲƽֵڴԼڱ׼ķΧڡˣ棬99.7 % 0.65 1.55 ֮䲨1.1 3 0.15ʣ 0.3 %ļУʻֲھƽֵdzԶλá׼ϴʱͿ֣ܳʿܻήΪ 0⼴Ҫһ¼ʵĻֻҪ֪ƽֵ 0 ֮˶ٸ׼Ȼٸֲ̬ı׼ʽΪ 0 Ŀԡ

˵ƽʵֵ0ľ 4 ı׼ζĿΪ 0.000031671ƽҪ 31574 㲻 Excel һ㣬빫ʽ =NORM.DIST0 1.2 0.3 1 ɡҸֲ̬ҲС棬 7.33 ı׼ĿΪ 1.1124910-13 ൱ھڴһͬڲܡ֥ӸѧѧҷףVan Valen 1973 ĺʺ˵֮˵ͣΪǸ߶ȱԡǴѧŷķУĽѧԼ C ά˹John C Aviseڶһƪ׵ԷֳĵᵽκִԷֳ׵˵ĵ 6 ӽĽǶֻһޡbut an evening goneʫĴѹʵӢѧԼ ÷ɵ ʷ˹John Maynard Smith1992귢һƪȻġ

ѧԴһľ֮޾ġж߶ԡ־εȴʾʧΪۻȫ档ûּϵԱѧϵĸԣԣҲṩ˸𾪵ơж˵ֲܶϸԷֳģȻǶúúõġûҵͨΪʵķʱڷܵѹݱԷֳԭĽֻЩԻԷֳļ׵ǡԷֳһôǣֲͶƾһ֮ɢռµءͽΪʲôֲijֻдԵĶڵϷֲ˹㷺繳äߡֽлߣͨڱĵԶȴֲﻨռеĴ½ȻЩԷֳﻹкܸߵķڡеһޡȫû

ԭģ

https//www.quantamagazine.org/puzzle-why-are-there-two-sexes-20170707/

ԭģ

https//www.quantamagazine.org/puzzle-solution-why-two-sexes-20170728/

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